Agency refers to motivation to succeed and to individuate the self, whereas communion refers to motivation to merge with others and to support group interests. Smith  in their search for explanations for the spread of observed behavior in experimental games, in particular individual choices which do not correspond to assumptions of material self-interest captured by the standard Nash equilibrium prediction.
It is an increasingly studied phenomenon. Some psychologists consider Machiavellianism to be essentially a subclinical form of psychopathy,  although recent research suggests that while Machiavellianism and psychopathy overlap, they are distinct personality constructs.
If high Machs actually are skilled at manipulating others, this appears to be unrelated to any special cognitive abilities as such. Dimensionality[ edit ] Although there have been myriad proposed factor structures, two dimensions emerge most consistently within factor-analytic research - differentiating Machiavellian views from tactics.
Denis Diderotthe French philosopher, viewed Machiavellianism as "an abhorrent type of politics" and the "art of tyranny". This suggests that people high in Machiavellianism do not simply wish to achieve, they wish to do so at the expense of or at least without regard to others.
More recent research on the motivations of high Machs compared to low Machs found that they gave high priority to money, powerand competition and relatively low priority to community building, self-love, and family concerns.
Machiavellianism has been studied extensively over the past 40 years as a personality characteristic that shares features with manipulative leadershipand morally bankrupt tactics.
The root of the concept of Machiavellianism is the book The Prince by Machiavelli which lays out advice to rulers how to govern their subjects. In the workplace[ edit ] Main article: It has in recent times been adapted and applied to the context of the workplace and organizations by many writers and academics.
High Machs admitted to focusing on unmitigated achievement and winning at any cost. Furthermore, studies on emotional intelligence have found that high Machiavellianism actually tends to be associated with low emotional intelligence as assessed by both performance and questionnaire measures.
In the s, Richard Christie and Florence L. Both emotional empathy and emotion recognition have been shown to have negative correlations with Machiavellianism.
Additionally, research has shown that Machiavellianism is unrelated to a more advanced theory of mindthat is, the ability to anticipate what others are thinking in social situations.
Using their scale, Christie and Geis conducted multiple experimental tests that showed that the interpersonal strategies and behavior of "High Machs" and "Low Machs" differ.
It was in this context that the St. People scoring high on the scale high Machs tend to endorse statements such as, "Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to do so," No.
It was first published in Septembera few months after Frederick became king, and is one of many such works. I can add colours to the chameleon, Change shapes with Proteus for advantages, And set the murderous Machiavel to school.
Although no research has so far identified the causal direction of the two-dimensions, it is likely that the views generate and validate the use of Machiavellian tactics. The Machiavellian typically only manipulates on occasions where it is necessary to achieve the required objectives.
Machiavellianism lies in the quadrant of the circumplex defined by high agency and low communion.
Machiavellianism in the workplace Machiavellianism in the workplace is the employment of cunning and duplicity in a business setting. However, research has firmly established that Machiavellianism is unrelated to IQ.Superficial charm (or insincere charm or glib charm) is the tendency to be smooth, engaging, charming, slick and verbally facile.
The phrase often appears in lists of attributes of psychopathic personalities, such as in Hervey M. Cleckley's The Mask of Sanity, and Robert D.
Hare's Hare Psychopathy Checklist. Associated expressions. Machiavellianism is "the employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct".
The word comes from the Italian Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli, born inwho wrote Il Principe (The Prince), among other works.
In modern psychology, Machiavellianism is one of the dark triad personalities.Download